Forward

A demonstration of development by both style and by function, style being a matter of architectural history, function being a social history.

 

Introduction

Function of Buildings

before 19th century: mostly churches, castles; palaces, a few townhalls, theatres; few hospital, library

Styles of Palaces

1.      Classicism(Grecian): Oslo, Norway, 1824-48; Athens, Greece, 1834-38

2.      Neo-Italian Renaissance: Konigsbau, 1826-35; Festssalbau, 1832-42

Trentham Park, 1833-42; Isle of Wight, 1845-49

3.      Scottish Baronial: Balmoral, 1853-55

4.      Neo French Renaissance: Lourve, 1853

5.      Greek Revival: King of Greece, 1834; princess of Russia, 1838 (Karl Schinkel)

6.      Neo-Gothic: Pierrefonds, 1858-79 (Viollet-le-Duc)

7.      Neo-Baroque: Neuschwantein, 1868-86, Herrenchiensee, 1878-86

Two intentions of the book:

1. to watch for each type the order in which styles follow one another

2. to follow changes in function and changes in planning

 

2.  12世紀晚期至17世紀晚期間的政府建築

建築物(建築師)

用途

特徵

2.2

Palazzo del Broletto at Como,1215

Extension of markets

Town hall and law court

An open ground floor with arcades and one large room above

2.3

2.4

Palazzo Pubblico ,Sienna,1298-1348

Palazzo Veccio,Florence, 1299-1314

 

Town hall and law court More specialized offices (market is spitting off)

Two halls, one on top of the other

Lower hall is closed

Fortress like facades

2.6

2.7

Thorne Town Hall ,Toran, Poland,1250-1603

 

 

Shops, market hall

Town hall, council room

Chancellery room

law courts(upper floor)

German town halls are often irregularly

shaped

Lower and upper arcade along the front

A gable for every bay above the tracery

2.8

Middelburg Town Hall, Holland, 1506

Guild is spitting off

Town hall and law court

Gothic in style

2.9

Rouen, Palais de Justice, 1499-1543

France

Law court

Early Renaissance

2.10

Design for a town center, 1460

(Filarette)

Town hall, treasury,

Prison, guilds, chapel

Cluster of buildings, axial orientation

2.11

Design for a civic office, 1480

(Giorgio)

Town hall, custom house

Prison, warehouse, shops

Offices

Cluster of buildings, axial orientation

2.1

Uffizi, Florence, 1560-71(Vasari)

Conservatori, Sriptori,

Auienza, Chancellery

The earliest office building

2.12

 

Antwerp town hall, 1561-65

Civil offices, City Council

Court of Justice,

Pulic Prosecutor

Grandeur in size, monumentality

2.13

2.14

Rennes, Palais de Justice, 1618-26

Civil offices, City Council Court of justice,

Prisons visitors room

Broque

2.15

2.16

2.17

Amsterdam town hall, 1648-55

(Jacob van Campen)

Civil offices, great hall

Court of justice, prisons

Treasury

Bankruptcy office

Banks

Grandeur in size, monumentality

 

 

3. 十八世紀之後的政府建築 國會大廈

 

建築物

建築師

風格

特徵

3.1

3.2

Irish Parliament

(Bank of Ireland)

1729

Edward Lovett Pearce

 

英國1660-1710

Baroque-Wren,Vanbrugh

(Rubens)(Loius XIII)1660-1710

自然美(幾何)/習慣美(感官)

1671 Blondel-設計/營造分離

 

英國 1620-1660, 1710-1800

Palladian Classicism--Jones, Webb

Cambell, Burlington, Kent

古代的簡潔及建築倫理,反裝飾

 

英國 1800-1900

Neo-classicism, Neo-baroque,

Neo-gothic

Chambers, Soane, Barry

Palladian

tetrastyle porticowith pediment

四柱式門廊及山牆

Low Pantheon domes低圓拱頂

3.3

3.4

British Parliament

1732

William Kent

 

Palladian

Roman Baths

Giant orders大柱式

Low Pantheon domes低圓拱頂

Venetian window 威尼斯窗

3.5

Capital of Virginia

1785

Thomas Jefferson

Samuel Dobie

 

Palladian

Deep hexastyle portico六柱式深門廊 unfluted ionic columns

3.6

3.7

Capital of U.S.A.

1792

Samuel Dobie

 

English

Classicism

Octastyle portico八柱式門廊

Low Pantheon domes低圓拱頂

3.8

3.9

3.10

Capital of U.S.A.

1792

William Thorton

Etienne-Sulpice Hallet

 

 

French

Neo-Classicism

 

Ecole de Medicine by Gondoin

Giant portico with eight columns

巨型八柱式門廊

Big/small rotunda

Elliptical colonnade

Semicircular room with coffered dome

3.11

3.12

Capital of U.S.A.

1803

Benjamin Latrobe

 

Greek Revival

Doric portico 多立克柱式門廊

Upper Loggia 二樓前廊

3.13

3.16

Capital of U.S.A.

1850

Thomas Walter

 

Grecian

Romanesque

 

St. Issac’s Cathedral, St.

Pertersburg

Ironed dome鑄鐵大圓頂

Giant Colonnade

3.17

3.18

3.19

Shire Hall, Chester

 1788-1822

Hereford, Shire Hall

Thomas Harrison

 

Robert Smirke(British Museum)

Grecian

Piranesi

French

Gondoin type room

Unfluted Doric columns with

pediment

3.20

3.21

Palais Bourbon

1828-33

Façade by Bernard Poyet

Interior by Jules de Joly

French

Classicism

Grandeur architectural rhetoric

Gondoin type room

3.23

-25

House of Parliament

London,1860

Charles Barry-plans

A.W.N. Pugin-details

Elizabethan

Neo-Gothic

Jacob Burckhardt

3.26

House of Parliament

Ottwa,1859

Fuller and Jones

Neo-Gothic

 

3.27

House of Parliament

Berne,1852

Friedrich Studer

Calssical,

Florentine

James Fergusson

3.33

Parliament Bldg.

Brasilica,1958

Oscar Neimeyer

International

Modernism

Expressionism , abstract form

Saucer and inverted saucer

 

 

 

 

4. 十八世紀之後的政府建築 政府辦公室

 

建築物

建築師

風格

特徵

4.1

Design for the Treasury

1734

William Kent

 

Burlintonian

Palladian

Quattrocento

tetrastyle porticowith pediment

四柱式門廊及山牆

rusticated façade 粗砌石法

4.2

4.4

Somerset House

1776

William Chambers

(idea of William Burke)

 

Jonesian

Palladian

Queen’s gallery

tetrastyle porticowith pediment

四柱式門廊及山牆

Piranesian rusticated arch

4.3

Treasury

1845-47

Charles Barry

 

Gothic and

Classical

Giant orders大柱式

Spires 尖塔

4.5

Foreign Office

1868-73

George Gilbert Scott

 

Gothic and

Classical

rusticated façade 粗砌石法

Spires 尖塔

4.6

New Government Office1898-1912

J.M.Brydon

 

Classical

tetrastyle porticowith pediment

四柱式門廊及山牆

rusticated façade 粗砌石法

Giant orders大柱式

4.7

Ministry de Affairs, 1845-56

Larconee

 

Classical

Two tired of attached columns carrying entablatures

二層併柱及頂線盤

4.8

 

Lourve,1852

 

Visconti

Lefuel

French

Renaissance

Two tired of attached columns with arched windows二層併柱及拱窗

4.9

Treasury, Washington.D.C. 1836-69

Robert Mills

Classical

Endless Giant orders大柱式

 

4.10

Old Executive Office Building Washington. D.C. 1871-88

A.B.Mullet

French

Renaissance

Two tired of attached columns carrying entablatures and pediment

二層併柱及頂線盤及山牆

Pavilioned roof with domers 斜屋頂及老虎窗

4.12

Old Executive Office Building Washington. D.C. 1871-88

 

A.B.Mullet

French

Renaissance

Two tired of attached columns carrying entablatures and pediment

二層併柱及頂線盤及山牆

Pavilioned roof with domers 斜屋頂及老虎窗

15.47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.12

World’s Columbian

Exhibition, Chicago

1893

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rayburn House, 1957-63

Peabody and Stearns

美國復古運動

(Law library, Columbia U

Pennsylvania. Station

Dept. of Agriculture

Bureau of Engraving

Internal Revenue

Dept. of Commerce

Dept. of Labor

Dept. of Justice

Federal Trade Commision

National Archives)

HHLH

Gothic

Grecian

Industrial

tetrastyle porticowith pediment

四柱式門廊及山牆

Spires 尖塔, 圓形鋼架

16.34

16.35

Carson Store, Chicago

1899-1904

Wertheim , Berlin

1896-1904

Louis Sullvan

 

Messel

Neo-classical

Industrial

Free grouping, ,undelivered blocks

Absence of moldings, grid pattern

Narrow vertical window strips

4.15

 

4.13

James Forretal Building Wachington D.C.1969

600-800 Independence Ave. D.C. 1963

Curtis and Davis

 

Holabrid, Root and Burges

International Modernism

Chunky Concrete

 

 

 

 

 

. 5. 十八世紀之後的政府建築 法院

建築物

建築師

風格

特徵

5.2

Court of Chancery

1821-25

John Soane

 

Classical

 

 

5.1

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

Palais de Justice, 1835

Palais Municipal, 1792

Law Courts

Law Courts,1809

Law Courts, 1782

Baltard

Bollee

Bollee

Durand

Bernard

Romantic Classicism

(remorseful)

 

Corinthian columns, Beaux Arts attic

Megalomaniac scale

Separation of Styles and plans

 

5.7

 

Birminham Town Hall, 1832

Hansom

Grecian

Roman

Peripteral temple and rusticated base

 

5.8

 

St George’s Hall, Liverpool, 1840

Elmes

Grecian

Roman

Peripteral temple and rusticated base

 

5.9

 

Leed’s Town Hall, 1853-58

Cuthbert Brodrick

Broque

Wrenaissance

(Chris Wren)

Grandeur

Attest the opulence of the commercial cities of Italy and Flanders

5.10

1.19

1.20

Palais de Justice, Paris, 1857-68

Kelheim, Hall of Liberation,

L.J.Duc

 

Leo von Klenze

Broque

 

Classical

Heavy attic, segmental arches

Attached giant columns

“madness”-Burckhardt

5.11

 

Hotel de Ville,1837-46, Paris

Godde and Lesueur

French

Renaissance

Pavilioned roof with domers 斜屋頂及老虎窗

5.12

Manchester Town Hall

And Assize Courts 1868-77

Alfred Waterhouse

Gothic

Deep moldings, spires

5.13

Manchester Town Hall

And Assize Courts

1868-77

Alfred Waterhouse

Gothic

Deep moldings, spires

5.17

Vienna, Rathaus

1868-77

Friedrich von Schmidt

Gothic

Geometric plan and regulated moldings

5.15

London Law Courts

1868-77

G.E.Street

Gothic

Strand façade and spectacular salle

5.14

5.16

London Law Courts

1868

George Gilbert Scott

Willaim Burges

Gothic-symmetrical

 

Gothic-asymmetrical

Burges plan-Creates an aentrancing drama-Summerson

High mark of Gothic Revival-Schuyler

5.18

5.19

Palaisde Justice, Brussels

1868-83

Joseph Poelaert

Neo-Baroque,Neo-gothic and Victorian in England

Colossus , monstrous and madness

Towel of Babel+ Michelangelo+ Piranesi

5.20

Pallazo di Giustizia

1886-1910

G. Calderini

Neo-Baroque

fussy

5.21

Leipzig Supreme Court

1887-95

Ludwig von Hoffman

Against Baroque

restrained

5.24

Copenhagen Town Hall

1892-1905

Martin Nyrop

Dutch and Scandinavian

Quiet façade and a high,freely shaped tower

5.22

Stockholm City Hall

1909-23

Rangar Osterburg

Northern

Renaissance

Doge’s Palace

Spiky decorative motif

5.23

Design for the admin.center,1917

Tony Garnier

Modernism

Projecting concrete canopy

5.25

Hilversum Town Tower,1928-30

Marinus Dudok

Internaltional Modernism

Frank Lloyd Wright

Grouping of unrelieved blocks, absence of moldings

5.26

Ottawa City Hall,1956-58

Vincent Rother

International

Modernism

Maximun performance with maximum thickness of material

5.27

Law Courts, Chandigrah,1950-57

Le Corbusier

Expressional

Modernism

Cyclopean in masses

Aggressive and overpowering

5.28

Boston City Hall,1962-69

Kallmanm McKinnell, Knowels

Expressional

Modernism

Arbitary in motifs

Oppressively top heavy,

Forbidding rather than inviting

Moneo, Rafael. “On Typology” in Oppositions 13,Summer 1978.pp.22-45

第一節

定義:建築類型

(1)   具有相同形式結構的一群建築物(a group of objects characterized by the same formal structure)

形式結構並非空間組織或類似建築,而是建築的內在形式。例:skyscapersGothic towers

(2) 建築類型是建築設計的起源及核心議題,設計過程是將建築類型從模糊到清晰的過程。

(4)   Gestalt-內在形式、幾何型式:向心(centrality)、線性(linearily)、簇群(clusters)、方格(grids)

型式選擇考慮因素:具有層次性,從社經條件至營建材料。

(5)   過分強調幾何-建築是抽象幾合的組合,與現實社會脫節。建築類型需從歷史中尋找抽象幾合,並與當代社會環境結合,產生新的類型。建築個體與需與城市整體環經境結合。例:dome and latern

(6)   建築類型應隨時空轉型(transformation),非固定不變。建築類型不應是可量產的工業原型。

(7)   新類型的產生:現代與歷史的對話或建築師主體介入,創造出新類型後主體消失,建築類型成為學問知識,可被他人引用及研究。

 

第二節

(1)   Quatremere:建築需回溯原型,形式來源來自歷史、自然及實用。

(2)   Type-具有永恆性及普同性 expressed permanence, in the single and unique objects

Model-(機械性製造)mechanical reproduction of an object

(3) Durand:外在型式-抽象幾何:軸線(axis)、方格(grids)內在型式-機能主義:經濟及實用,但外在型式與內在型式不需一致,可任意重組。

(4)抽象幾何與古典主義的秩序(orders)分離,僅是裝飾,成為折衷主義。內在型式降格為經濟及實用。建築成為一種機械性製造,成為另一種model

(5)Genre:樣式(style)。對歷史元素的引用開啟法國布雜學院教育(Beaux Arts)先河。

 

第三節

(1)    現代運動-19th C.類型學,通用性、重複性、抽象性、生產性觀念取代類型學。

(2)    Mies- 簡約空間(simplicity in space)、生產材料(building materials)

(3)    Le Corbusier-建築原型是工業原型(prototype)、量產(mass production)

(4)    機能主義- Yorke-現代公寓(The Modern Flat),強調基地(site)及空間需求(program)

無原始型式結構,卻產生以機能區分的新類型學。Klein- 小住宅(Houses),強調用途、動線、方位。研究範圍涵蓋過去建築,使建築原型目的清晰及質化,建築類型成為資料集成。

 

第四節

(1)原因:二戰後現代運動於重建歐洲城市過程的失敗。

(2)Muratori - the city as a living organism(城市有機論),研究Venice的城市元素-callicampicorti

個體與整體有不可分割性。Rossi-專注於城市元素的外在形式研究(emphasis to morphology, reducing typology to the fieldof urban analysis)

Argan

(1)回歸Quatremere主張-建築原型-主要目的及隱諭意義

(2)建築原型非先驗或模糊的,應是可由後天實例中具體比較的,從類似建築物中歸納產生出具有普同性的型式結構類型

(1)   建築師創作分二階段-“尋找原型階段- 從歷史及社會中歸納出將抽象類型

創造型式階段--現代運動的形隨機能及設計方法論

Rogers - 反對現代運動的形隨機能及設計方法論,以涵構論(時間及環境)取代

Rossi

(1)   建築形式來源- 記憶及理性,而非機能及技術;好空間例如迴廊,可存在於不同建築中

(2)   城市歷史是建築歷史的總合,經過考驗成為人類共同記憶

(2) Rossi的類型理論與現實脫節,極端正統主義及元素的使用唐突及使人不舒服。

Colquohoun - 溝通(communication)及可理解性(intelligibility)-建築物需建立建築與社會的關係。

 

第五節

(1) Kahn,力圖尋找建築原型,但其他結構主義者/新理性主義者淪為型式主義者。 Krier兄弟-歷史元素的重組,懷舊思想,是外在型式的重現,與現實社會脫節。

(2) Venturi,建築類型=建築意像,重視外在型式的溝通(美國傳統小木語屋彙),但缺乏內在型式結構,片斷性與局部性,無連續性及完整型式結構,無法重塑小木屋原型或創造出小木屋新類型

   建築成為model(具像抄襲),而非type

(3)   建築的型式結構 (formal structure)不隨機能及技術而異,現代社會變遷過快,人缺乏信心尋找建築的型式結構。

(4)   建築類型無法以舊定義重新包裝, 但建築類型學仍有意義。建築類型學使人了解建築無法與歷史及基地涵構分離。建築類型學需與新時空情境結合。整體結合後會產生新的型式結構 (formal structure),成為新的建築類型。

 

Dunster, David. “”Madrid, Moneo and Type: An Introduction to the Arguments for Typology” In UIA Issue 2, 1983, pp.8-9

(1) Moneo: 回歸Quatremere主張-建築原型-尋找主要目的及隱諭意義。尋找形式結構並非空間組織或類似建築,而是建築的內在形式。

Quatremere Model is an object repeated, Type is an object conceived by artists without resemblance. The principal occupation of science and philosophy is to discover their origin and primitive use.

(2)建築類型的轉化(tranxformation):

每一時空情境,其建築類型自然不同。建築師應先從歷史元素中找尋,再依當時當地狀況調整

Durand對歷史元素的引用,雖然僅為model行為,但其方法值得參考。

(2)   20世紀的建築類型研究

20世紀初,現代運動者將建類型視為工業原型,作為量產的模型。二戰後歐洲城市的重建的失敗導致義大利城市研究興起。Argan結合Quatremere的原型論及現代運動的形隨機能設計論。

Rossi掙脫機能與形式包袱,從歷史中尋找空間元素-corridorRossi 從啟蒙時期建築中找元素,回歸當時的理性思潮,完全反對現代商業社會。但忽略建築原型的實用概念使他不顧建築機能,

反對現代商業社會的作法使建築物無法與當代使用者溝通。 Venturi-建築類型=意像,但缺乏內在型式結構。

(3)   類型學的未來:三種類型學

1. Quatremere, Moneo, Rossi – original myth and metaphoric importance of their labor

2. Pevsner, Durand, Colquohun- function, prototype

3. Steven Holl- site and vernacular, stereotype

Hospitals

 

FUNCTION

PLANNING

STYLE

I

9TH C-

14TH C.

 

l           最早記錄:教會,集收容之家、繹站、醫院、療養院等功能於一身,對象:窮人,朝聖者,旅人,孕婦,孤兒,殘廢

教會:憐憫觀懷之家, BISHOP CHRODEGANG

查理曼大帝(CHARLEMAGNE 742-814)CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE,789 AD.

十一奉獻:816 SYNOD OF AACHEN

ABBEY OF ST GALL-829 AD.

l           管理:教會及兄弟會(慈善團體) BENEDICTINE

AUGSTINIAN-SOCIAL WORK-LALARITESANTONITESTHE HOLY SPIRIT

十字軍(ST JOHN OF JERUSALEM)

l           機能演變:由簡入繁         

盲人FOR THE BLINDQUINZE-VINGTS 、繹者FOR THE TRAVELLERSTRINITE、麻瘋FOR LEPERSTHE MALADREDIE DU TORTOIRFOR ORPHANSTHE  ST. ESPRIT、 精神病院SEPERATION OF THE SICK AND THE INSANE

l           病床少451BEDS醫院不分科、死亡率極高50%AND MORE

l           AILSED INFIRMARY

宗教為主,病者可看到神壇-心靈健康比身體健康更重要

 

l           COURTYARD

KUES ALMSHOUSE AND CHAPEL

l           ROMAN

l           GOTHIC

 

II

15TH C-

16TH C.

l           開始注重醫院機能與衛生、男女病人分開

S. MARIA NUOVA, FLORENCE

OSPEDALE MAGGIORE, MILAN-BY FILARETE –FIG.9.10 9.11

SANTO SPIRITO IN SASSIA, ROME-DOME BY PALLADIO-FIG.9.12

ST JOHN AT VALLETTA ON MALTA

HOSPITAL SAVOY, ENGLAND

HOSPITAL REAL IN GRANADA, SPAIN-FIG 9.13-14

HOSPITAL DE LA SANTA CRUZ AT TOLEDO, SPAIN

HOSPITAL DES INCURABLES, PARIS-DOUBLE CROSS

l           C RUCIFORM

十字平面,中庭,神壇(教堂)居中

l           初期衛生及隱

私觀念:一樓中庭迴廊,拱頂有水管,廁所,衣櫃,

l           TUSCAN RENAISSANCE

l           ITALIAN

QUATTROCENTO

 

IV

17TH C-

18TH C

19TH.

 

 

17TH C

l           INCURABLES(精神病患、犯人、盲人、智障、癱瘓者等)

HOTEL DES INVALIDES, BICETREHOTEL DIEU (HORRIBLE)

l           比規模HOTEL DES INVALIDES, PARIS BY BRUANTM FIG 9.18

ROYAL NAVAL HOSPITAL, GREENWICH, BY CRIS WREN, FIG 9.21

l           慈善捐款-規模小

18TH C

l           ENGLAND-建立大量專科醫院及收容所,

1750-   醫病方式仍十分殘忍,醫院開始分類-婦產科、精神病等;收容所則無明顯分類

l           收容所及監獄-殘忍管理、衛生極差、死亡率12.5%-25%

HOTEL DIEU, PARIS,

FIRE IN 1722PAVILLION PLAN, RADIAL PLAN, PRIZON PLAN

l           TENON-MEMORIES ON HOSPITALS,1788,

科學數據, 強調分類、開刀房、病房、PAVILLION PLAN

19TH C

l           NIGHTINGALE-通風,將低感染率

HOSPITAL LARIBOISIERE BY GAUTHIER 1839-54, 905BEDS

ROYAL VICTORIA HOSPITAL AT NETLEY, 1856-63

STEINHOFF ASYLUM, VIENNA, WAGNER

l           RADIAL

放射型

DESGOTES,LATE 17TH C

STURM, 1820

l           中央拱頂通風

病床間有廁所, 1525 BEDS

l           PAVILLION

分棟式醫院-通風

WREN,1702

ROWEHEAD, 1756

LE ROY, 1773

GAUTHIER, 1756

l           法國-集中式

幾合型、古典式

l           英國-分散式

自然形,重機能

l           ASYLUMS-收容

,育幼院CRUCIFORM PLAN, 19TH C後採用PAVILLION, 分散化、

郊區化

 

l           GEORGIAN

COUNTRY HOUSE

l           BAROQUE

l           NEO CLASSICAL

l           GRECAIN

 

III

現代

20TH C-

 

l           PASTEUR/ LISTER發現細菌,抗生素及消毒法,1870S,麻醉1846,通風不再重要。

l           COBLUMBIA PRESBYTERAIN MC,1499 BEDS

CORNELL MC,1451 BEDS27 STORY,1933

l           WAIBLINGEN, SANATORIUM FOR TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS, 1926

SET BACK TERRACES ON SOUTH SIDE

l           CENTRALIZED

中央式-醫療效率,節省成本,感染控制

l           急診、門診、病房、開刀、供應、污物

l           人性化、營運化、商品化、專科化

l           MODERN

l           POSTMODERN

PRISONS

 

FUNCTION

PLANNING

STYLE

I

中文

世藝

紀復

 

11TH C-

16TH C.

l           最早記錄:

教會,CLUNNIAC, 11TH C

CISTERACIAN, 1206PRISON IN THE ABBEY

市政廳-SECULAR PRISONS

l           文獻:JOHN HOWARD

THE STATE OF PRISONS, 1977; APPENDIX, 1788

AN ACCOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL LAZARETTOS, 1789

刑房、地勞及酷法: SAMUEL ROMILY(人權主義者)

l           FILARETE, 1460,衛生觀念、男女、初犯即重犯者分開,FONTANA, 初犯者,有獨立廁所

l           ROUND

TOWERS WITH RADIAL CELLS

 

大房間、少數有獨立囚室(CELLS)

 

 

 

II

17TH C-

19TH C.

 

l           GHENT, RADIAL PLAN

MAISON DE FORCE AT ACKERGHEM, 1772,受DESGODTESR, STURM 影響

l           HOWARD:單獨囚間以改善衛生及人權

DANCE: NEWGATE PRISON,受ROMANO,PALLADIO 影響,美觀但不實用(MILIZIA:ORDER AND HYGINE)LE DOUX: AIX

 

l           PERIPHERY BENTHAM: PANOPTICON PRISON(少數)

BENTHAM AND BUNCE: WORKOUSE(機能主義), 1797

JEFFORSON: VIRGINIA PRISON, SINGLE CELL(獨居), 1797

SOANE: DESIGN FOR A WOMEN’S PRISON, 1782

l           RADIAL:GHENT

FILARETEOSPEDALE MAGGIORE(大多數)

HARDWICK: MILLBANK PRISON, LONDON, 1813

HERRMAN: SECOND MOABIT PRISON, BERLIN, 1869

LEBAS: LA PETITE ROQUETTE PRISON, PARIS, 1826

VAUDREMER: LA SANTE PRISON, PRAIS, 1862

美國

l           囚房與工廠分開

AUBURN PRISONSING SING PRISON

l           囚房與工廠合併(19TH C 監獄標準型)

JOHN HAVILANDEASTERN PENITENTIARY, CHESTNUT HILL

l           PAVILLIONWITH TELEPHONE POLE(20TH C監獄)

BLOUET: METTRAY PRISON, 1839

POSSIN: FRESNES PRISON, 1898

l           RADIAL

放射型

l           PERIPHERY

週邊型

 

美國-獨囚有助於反省

l           囚房與工廠分開

囚房無窗,中央挑空走道、屋頂採光

l           囚房與工廠合併

每間囚室有冷熱水

 

 

DICKENS-WORSE THAN BASTILLE(SUNNY GARDEN)

l           PAVILLION

WITH TELEPHONE POLE

 

l           GOTHIC

EASTERN PENITENTIARY

PRISON

l           EGYPTIAN

AND ROMAN

 

DICKENS-DIMAL FRONTED PILES OF BASTARD

EGYPTIAN

 

III

現代

20TH C-

 

l           PASTEUR/ LISTER發現細菌,抗生素及消毒法,1870S,麻醉1846,通風不再重要。

l           COBLUMBIA PRESBYTERAIN MC,1499 BEDS

CORNELL MC,1451 BEDS27 STORY,1933

l           WAIBLINGEN, SANATORIUM FOR TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS, 1926

SET BACK TERRACES ON SOUTH SIDE

l           CENTRALIZED

中央式-醫療效率,節省成本,感染控制

l           急診、門診、病房、開刀、供應、污物

l           人性化、營運化、商品化、專科化

l           MODERN

l           POST

MODERN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forward 本書三大主軸;機能(社會史)、風格(建築史)、設計及營造史

Railway Stations  1830-1950 實用性建築物,車站機能不變,但風格持續改變  

FUNCTION

PLANNING

STYLE

鐵路:以機器在固定軌道上載運人與貨 (VS. 公路、航空、航海)

鐵路: 16TH C. ,德國 ,礦車在木板上運送礦石

16TH –18th C. ,英國 ,礦車在木/鐵軌上運送礦石

      1803, (馬車車頭)公共貨運鐵路、1807, (馬車車頭)公共客運鐵路

      1801-1825 (蒸氣機火車頭) 鐵路試驗期Richard Trevithick

1825 George Stephenson 貨運鐵路Stockton-Darlington

1830 George Stephenson 客運鐵路 Liverpool-Manchester“Rocket”

18502000 MILES IN ENGLAND1830起,影響遍及英國以外, America 1829Russia 1837,Germany 1835

Sleeping Cars-USA 1865,Underground Railways-London 1863International Railways- Oriental Express, 1888電動車頭 Siemens & Halske, 1879, Baltimore-Ohio Railroad, 1895

(14.2 ) Crown  St. Station, Liverpool,

Liverpool-Manchester Railroad, 1830 

Cambridge Station, Oxford Station, Nine Elms, London

車站原型:

鐵道旁二樓簡易車站,月台上有木製遮雨棚

Utilitarian

臨時性建築

(14.1) Euston Propylaea, Philip Hardwick

London 1835-39 London-Brimingham Railroad

(14.3) Monkwearmouth Station, Brimingham, John Dobson,1848

(14.4) Chester general Station, Francis Thompson, 1847-48

(14.8) London Bridge Station,   Henry Roberts, 1844-45

(14.8) London Bridge Station, Henry Roberts, 1844-45

      Munich Station

Providence Station, Rhode Island

 

 

 

New Castle

全部月台有雨棚

Grecian-monumental

propylae神廟入口Doric

新世代,重要公共建築物

Classical

Classical

Italianate, campanile

Early Christian, Italian Romanesque

Bavarian

Later 19th c.

(14.5,6) New Castle Station, John Dobson, 1846-55

(14.13) Eastern Station, Budapest Station 1881-84

(14.19) Zurich Station, 1865-71 -

 

Cinquecento 英國南部五個港市

 

Cinquecento+Baroque

Later 19th c.

(14.7)New Market Station,1848

(14.20) First Grand Central Station, New York

(14.18) Armstel Station, Armsterdam, 1881-89, Cuijpers

(14.21) Central Station, Milan, 1925-31,

 

 

 

Pavilion roof

Baroque19th 後半葉車站建築主要風格

French renaissance

French renaissance

Neo Baroque ( Emergence of Modernism)

(14.15) Brunswick Station, 1838

(14.15) Temple Meads Station, Bristol, 1839-40

(14.15) St.Pancras Station, London, 186960-69

 

 

l           Gothic

St.Pancras: largest span for train shed,

(14.10) Leipzig Station 1840-44

(14.11) Gare de l’Est, Paris 1847-52, Duquesney

(14.12) Kings Cross Station, 1851-52, Cubitt

(14.14) Gare du  Nord, Paris, Hittorff 1861-65

 

Lunette /Arcade

Windows at end of vaulted train shed

Clock 車站與月台合一

King’s Cross:Fitness for its purpose and characteristic expression of that purpose

Gare du Nord: Beaux Arts – “a scandal”, Burkehardt,

Freaks Short Egyptian Sylva Seville StationMoorish

(14.9) New Heaven Station, Henry Austin, 1848-50

 

Egyptian/Chinese/Moorish

(13.18) Marshall Field Wholesale Warehouse, Richardson

(14.23) Union Station, St. Louis, Link and Cameron

Grand Central Chicago, Gilbert

(14.22) Union Station, Washington D.C., Burnham

       Grand Central II/Pennsylvania Station, New York

 

Concourse vs. train shed

車站與月台分離

19th美國公共建築風格

l           Near Romanesque

l           Classical Revival

(14.24) Karlsruhe Station, 1906-13

(14.25) Leipzig Hauptbahnhof, 1906-15

(14.27) Helsinki Station, Saarinen

(14.26) Basel, Badischer Bahnhof, 1912-13

(14.28) Florence Station,Italy, 1934-36

(14.29) Stazione Termini, Rome 1951

Broken Gable

Cantilevered RC

Vienna Sucession

 

 

Double curved roof

Modernism

 

 

 

FACTORIES

FUNCTION

PLANNING

STYLE

工廠:以機器大量製造工業化產品的大型建築物

Manu: 手工 Factor:貨品交易處,供住商儲藏之用。

Fondaco, Filarete, design for a market, 1460

a wharehouse, a wholesale market and living accommodation

印刷廠,Nuremburg1493,宗教改革。 Antwerp1550-1600, 100 workers

Tapistry makers 皇家織錦畫Gobelins-Henri IVColvert-Louis XIV, 1667

Porcelin workers國家陶瓷廠。

l           形式:私人工廠,實用主義為主,極少歷史風革,UtilitarianClock and cupola

Blondel1771 simple and solid, and proud, in the periphery of a town by a river,動力/工人

l           訪織廠silk-wool-cotton,食品廠,機械廠、化工廠

l           構造:磚木造、鋼造、RC, 外觀, brick為主,cast iron facade, 1849, Bogardous, New York

l           大型手工藝工廠,無機器動力

(17.1)Royal Porcelain FactorySerres1753-56425 ft

(17.2)Tobacco FactorySeville1728-70480 ft

 

Italian Renaissance

公共建築

l           工業革命、科學發展史、煉鋼的起源、訪織機的起源

1709, Darby,以煤鍊鋼、1746 Huntdman 坩爐鍊鋼,1733,Kay飛梭輪、1764, Hargreaves, spping jenny, 1765, Watt蒸氣機、1781, Watt, 鍋爐、1775, Arkwight 水輪、1785, Cartwight 訪織機、1765 five million tons of coal1785 ten million tons of coal

1813 2000 power looms1850, 250000 power looms

1781第一座鐵橋Coalbrookdale Bridge

(17.10) Shingkels sketch of Manchester Mill, 1826 40 bays, 8F, 狀觀

l           發明家及實業家-Richard ArkwightCarlyle :

Malthus’s  Principles of Population,人口論。

Dr. Aiking:悲慘社會,童工, Manchester-煙霧迷漫的骯髒城市

Reformer-Robert Owen” A New View of Society” Charles FourierLe Doux

John Wood Trafford Ebzner Howard, Tony Garnier, Le Corbusier

Dr. Granville,實業家,New Lanark Mill, New Harmony, Indiana

l           英國工業城市的發展

(17.12) Lanark Mill, Robert Owen

(17.15) “Village of Cooperation” Robert Owen 1816

(17.16) Saltaire, Titus Salts mill, 820 houses, 1851

Schinkel’s visit to England 1826促進德國工業發展

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

英國工業革命後,產生大量工廠,

1796-1803,出現工廠(manufactory)名詞 ,原為millSir Price:

工廠太醜,視覺污染

 

 

 

 

 

l           早期工廠

Cloth Mill-van Robais, Middleburg in Holland Abbyville France, 1665

(17.4) Silk Mill- Lumbe, Derby, 水力, 300 workers, 1717

(17.3) Wool Mill, Linz, Austria, 1722-26,駐廠醫生,退休金制度

(17.6) Textile printing factory, Ryhiner, Basel, France, 1751,

(17.5) Rotes Haus, Monschau, Germany, employed 4000 workers1756

 

 

 

 

 

Utilitarian

Chimeny, Gable

Clock and

cupola

Basel-country house

l           英國工廠發展史- Derby Mills

l           非防火工廠:第一座cotton spinning mill ArkwightCromford 1771

(17.8) Masson Mill, Cromford1783, Brick wall and wood frame, 6F

(17.9) Samuel Oldknow' Mill, Marple, 1790

l           第一座防火工廠,William Strutt1793Mill at Darby, 1795 at Belper:鋼柱:iron pillars and  wood floor on shallow brick arches.6F, 115 ft. water wheel

l           第一座鋼構工廠 鋼樑:Charles Bages,Outer walls are still load bearing. thinner承重牆消失的起源

(17.11) Bage’s flour mill, Ditherington, Shrewsbury,1796

Sadford Mill, 1801,中空鋼柱可供暖氣及1805 裝煤氣燈

鋼構廠房較木構廠房防火,開始用鋼柱Albion MillLondon1791 Fire

1797後,鋼構工廠大量產生,鋼樑鋼柱大量運用至廠房以外1826 British Museum用鋼樑,大跨距,防火,施工快,但太醜

(17.32)John Marshall’s Temple Mill  at Leeds-

Egyptian, 1840

 

(17.35)Templeton carpet factory-

Gothic, Glasgow, 1892

l           美國工廠的發展(其他國家工廠發展史不完整)

美國工業化較歐陸更早,比英國晚20-50

Charles Dickens-1841, Lowell, clean mills with fresh air

Virtulon Rich-1832, Pittsburg, Manchester of the west

l           Lowell, Massachusetts                               

Bevery Mill-第一座工廠有 spinning machine, 1787,

    Waltham Mill-第一座工廠有power loom, 1814 Francis Cabot Lowell

    Marrimack manufacturing company – 41 bays, 5F, 1848, 狀觀

    Lippitt Mill, Rhode Island-第一座鋼柱工廠,1848

(17.18) Cohoes N.Y. Harmony Mill, 1872, 1185 ft. 5F

(17.19) Lawrence Mill, Bay State Mill, Massachusetts, 1846

(17.20) Manchester, N.H. Amoskeag Mill, 1838, 製造蒸氣機

John Coolidge”Mill and Mansion”

 

New England Textile Mill Survey

 

 

Housing with factories

 

Utilitarian

Chimeny,Gable

Clock and

Cupola

 

 

l           歐陸各國工廠的發展

l           法國﹔(17.25-26) Ledoux, Royal Salt works at Chaux, 1776

l           德國﹔Brugelmann(17.17-28) ratingen, Cromford textile mill, 1784

l           意大利:機房,消防站,抽水站;campanile(17.36,37)

Tuscan columns carrying a pediment

Neo-classical

(17.33) Fecamp Liqueur, 1900 -French Gothic to early Renaissance

(17.38) Menier chololate factory, iron skeleton, 1871

(17.39) Charles six spinning mill at Tourcoing, Hennebique, RC 1895

(17.43) Berlin, AEG turbine factory, Peter Behrens, 1910

(17.41) Alfled, Fagus Shoe factory, 1911, Gropius and Meyer

(17.44) Rotterdam, tobacco factory, Brinkmann and Vlucht, 1929

(17.46) Bologna, State Tobacco factory, Nervi, 1952

1883 La Baron Jenny, Home Insurance Bldg, fire-proof steel skeleton façade

 

Modernism

Expressionism

Structural

Rationalism

 

 

A PARALLEL HISTORY

 

l          芝加哥學派發展

第一棟摩天大樓(Skyscrapers) 字源:帆船桅杆頂端之三角形小旗

1883 產物保險大樓(Home Insurance Bldg)William Le Baron Jenny, Chicago,

構造:電梯、十層鋼構(鋼與鑄鐵)、外牆為磚牆及石材。

外觀:古典主義( Italian palazzo)、基座、水平橫帶、頂樓柱欄、磚牆分割線

設計理念:(1)lighter structure(2)metropolitan image(3)panoramic view (5)advanced technology(elevator

(6)alienation to surroundingsa city by itself

時代背景: (1)Chicago1871年大火,災後重建及防火需求(2)電梯及複層鋼構架技術發展(3)美國資本市場蓬勃發展(4)需集中交易(5)都市地價昂貴(6)房地產投機成長、貸款制度產生(6)無高度及建築面積管制、利潤無限

Chicago

1888Tacoma Bldg. William Holabird and Martin Roche, Chicago:磚牆變薄,高度隨之增加

1889: McNally Bldg. William Holabird and Martin Roche, Chicago:全鋼構造

1891Monadnock Bldg. Daniel Burnham and John Root, Chicago:十六層、傳統磚造

1892: Masonic Temple. Daniel Burnham and John Root, Chicago:二十一層,100 mpanoramic view

1895: Reliance Bldg. Daniel Burnham and John Root, Chicago:外牆全為玻璃

New York

1875Tribune Bldg. Richard Morris Hunt, Chicago:第一座使用電梯的商業大樓

1885: 自由女神像,Gustave Eiffel、鋼構技術

1888: Leroy Buffington、二十八層辦公大樓、Cloudsrapers

1888: Guarantee Bldg. Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, New Yorkarchetype of modern office bldg.

1889: Bradford Gilbert、十一層大樓

1891: Boston Daily News: Skyscrapers字眼首度出現

 

l          影響

Skyscrapers 在技術上一旦證明可行,就立刻成為美國(1880-1929)資本主義的房地產投資市場最佳投資工具,在大城市中大受歡迎,美國較無歷史包袱,可快速接受新事物。歐洲人在文化上、美學上無法快速認同Skyscrapers,例如Eiffel Tower之鋼構造在Paris經過70-80年纔被認同。但部份美國人仍對Skyscrapers遮擋街道陽光感到憂慮,Skyscrapers必須退縮,set back成為20世紀建築法令主要來源之一。台灣建蔽率時期:建物高度=面前道路寬度x1.5+6m。容積率時期:建物高度=1;3.6。台北市住宅區建物高度=1;1.5

1916: New York building zone regulation,高度現制、分區管制、立面管制、附屬設施管制、容積獎勵 (廣場)

1893: Chicago Bldg Ht. 40m

 

l          摩天大樓的社會及文化意涵

摩天大樓的地標作用、崇高化(A Cathedral of Commerce)

1913: Woolworth Bldg.Gothic

1931: Empire State Bldg.

1933: Rockefeller Center

摩天大樓的廣告宣傳效果、以電力表現天際線、美國人對tower的崇拜

1930: Chrysler Bldg. Art DecoExpressionism

1932: Philadelphia Saving Fund Society

摩天大樓的政治宣傳效果

1953: Moscow UniversityRussian Constructivism

摩天大樓的建築意象及語彙

1950s; Modernism

1980s: Post Modernism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MODERN TIMES

 

l          芝加哥論壇報大樓競圖1922

首獎Raymond Hood and John Mead Howells-Gothic, 美國歌德式辦公大樓 (1913-1922)

第二名 Eliel Saarinen; sculpted mass, taping, geometric forms, set back, monumentality, modern idiom

Archetype of American skyscrapers:

Radiator Bldg. Raymond Hood, 1924

Daily News Bldg. Raymond Hood,1931

Barcaly-Vesey Bldg. 1926

State Empire Bldg. 1931

歐洲建築師對美國的影響

        1923, Skyscrapers as solutions to Housing Problem – Wendingen, 高層集合住宅

     1924, Glass skyscrapers” Mies van de Rohe,完全現代主義的金屬帷幕大樓

     1925, Auguste Perret, observation tower in Grenoble, 完全鋼筋混凝土高塔

     Walter Gropius, Harvard 1937Moholy-Nagy, New Bauhaus, Chicago, 1937

Mies van de Rohe, IIT, 1938,,開啟美國Bauhaus建築教育

各國Skyscrapers的發展

      1952, Torre Latinamericana, Mexico City, 182 m. 拉丁美洲第一座高層建築

1932,Boerentoren, Antwerp, 85 m,歐洲第一座高層建築

      1948-60, Auguste Perret, Tour Perret, Amiens, France,居民至1960纔接受高層集合住宅

      1958 Torre Velasca, Milan, BBBR, 高層建築物的圖像及紀念意義

Mies van der Rohe

簡潔,純淨,精準細部,抽象,理性及通用性-建築無論類型,都應具有相同原則。1947-1948

Chicago的十四棟高層建築,包括Residential Towers in Chicago,美國高層集合住宅

Seagram Bldg. New York, Archetype of American skyscrapers with q plaza: 1961年開放空間法

SOM Lever House:New York , 1951, 1930美國今融危機及二戰後美國現代主義摩天大樓的正式復甦

      美國現代主義建築先驅, 帷幕大樓意象,包浩斯美學觀, Mies German pavilion in Barcelona

      開放空間先驅(但設計不良不能用),建築物配置不尊重街道立面延續性

續集不如首映集精采,淪為形式

 

EARTH AND SKY

l          Skyscrapers的外觀意涵

Aldof Loos 的反諷,Skyscrapers 是古典柱式的直接復古模仿

1888: Guarantee Bldg. Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, New Yorkarchetype of modern office bldg.

柱礎(Base)、柱身(Shaft)、柱頭(Capital)、頂線盤(a frieze at entablature level surmounted by a wide projecting cornice)-適合20層以下。20層以上-Campanile set back bldg.-地標性及雕塑性。Tripartite formula, two focal points-base群樓及summit尖頂。群樓與都市紋理及活動息息相關,尖頂是都市天際線的一環。具有地標性及隱喻(metaphor)意涵。

 

l           Public area公共區域-the Base

1925Chicago Tribune, 公共區域位於頂樓。1930New York Daily News, 公共區域位於一樓。

Art Deco 時期,更重視公共區域。Chrysler Bldg(1930). Empire State Bldg(1931). Field Bldg.(1934)

摩天大樓在紀念性、裝飾性上更注重公眾性。

1970S, John Portman; atrium type hotel

Philip Johnson and John BurgeeIDS Center in Minneapolis

Times Square, Crossroads in Shibuya, Tokyo

Rockefeller Center, Seagram Bldg. 大樓後退增加透視效果,廣場增加紀念性。

 

l           摩天大樓的建築意象及語彙

紐約世貿大樓成為Manhattan的門戶象徵。

SOM-Richard Keating(Houston)Texas Commerce Center,弧形tympanum(山牆的三角面),巨形方框成為Dallas City的入口意象。

1983AT & T Bldg.第一座Post Modern 摩天大樓。Helmut Jahn, Kevin Roche, Cesar pelli, Michael Graves, KPF, Ricardo Bofill, IM Pei, SOM-David Child(New York), SOM-Adrian Smith(Chicago)

摩天大樓像一曲樂章-Cass Gilbert

Transamerica,尖頂向上無限延伸。

 

l           Tech equipment建築設備-the Summit

建築設備:電梯機房、排氣口、避震器、水箱、通訊台均位於頂樓。

觀光用途:廣告牌、瞭望台、旋轉餐廳、紀念品店均位於頂樓。

心理作用:鳥瞰圖(bird’s eye view)可俯瞰一切景物,沒有噪音、臭味及危險,俯瞰可讓人羨慕、理解及產生自信。登上摩天大樓讓人產只有夢幻中可感受到的懼怕、崇高、滿足等不同感覺。

 

THE HEIGHTS OF THCHNOLOGY

l          Skyscrapers與科技的關係

1870電梯、電力、日光燈、高層防火、逃生、由其是結構-抗風力及抗地震力設計

風力與高度平方根成正比、地震地與建築物自重成正比

Frame       Load Bearing Core         Truss at Periphery        Tube

1972,World Trade Center, New York, 415 m, 週邊緊密小樑柱,Central Core

John Hancock Center, Chicago, Trussed Tube

1977, City Corp, New York, Triangular Truss, damping system(避震)

Tube in Tube

Sears Tower, Chicago, Bundle Tubes

Triangular Tubes, 500 floors, one mile, Robert Sobel, Houston (not built)

Millennium Tower, Tokyo, 840m, 1/2 mile, Norman Foster (not built)

 

1880s, Rigid Frame (Ductile Moment Resisting Frame)的技術使Skyscrapers蓋至約30

Frame +Shear Truss可蓋至約40層,Belt Truss可蓋至約60層。

1960s, Framed Tube的技術使Skyscrapers蓋至約約80層,Truss Tube + interior columns可蓋至約100層,Bundled Tube可蓋至約120層,Truss Tube w/o interior columns可蓋至約140層。

資料:Charles Jencks, Skysrapers - Skycities Rizzoli, 1980

 

l           Skyscrapers是綜合產物,科技並非唯一因素

(1)經濟 Economics (2)美學Aesthetics (3)環境 Environment (4)生活方式 Life Styles (5)科技 TechnologySkyscrapers是上開因素的極致表現

 

l           Concrete vs., Steel

不同文化對材料的偏好:美國-Steel,鍊鋼業發達、營造業較專業; 亞洲-Concrete, Concrete需大量人工,水泥可就地取得,但不利於環保。

結構:Concrete可抗壓力,適合作為柱子,簡力牆亦可增加結構勁度,但因地震力及施工限制,Concrete不利於超高層建築。

Concrete防音性高、防火性高、適合集合住宅、旅館。

高強度混凝土發明後,CONCRET-STEEL工法已合併使用,CoreConcrete,周邊為Steel

瘦高性摩天樓彼此相連,增加抗水平力。辦公室沿中庭四周配置,有利於採光。

 

l          未來

避震尼阻器繼續發展,未來摩天大樓結構僅需支撐垂直載重。200-500層大樓可能產生。

電梯:Double DeckerSky-lobby

1853Otis電梯發明者,1857: 第一座載客電梯

1870Equitable Bldg.第一座使用電梯的辦公大樓

1875Tribune Bldg. Richard Morris Hunt, Chicago:第一座使用電梯的商業大樓

電腦:中央管理監控、智慧型大樓

防火:平屋頂供直昇機救火

通風:退伍軍人症,病菌經空調管傳染

技術:新建材及新技術最佳實驗室